Endocannabinoid Receptor System
A representation of the human endocannabinoid receptor system is provided in the diagram to the left. CBG is the one cannabinoid that research2 has demonstrated as binding to both the CB1 receptor (receptor to which THC binds) and the CB2 receptor (the receptor to which CBD binds). It is also unique in that it does this without being psychoactive. This suggests that CBG is capable of producing much of the entourage effect by itself. Protocols using CBG isolate can ensure that the cannabinoid profile of a product is consistent in every dropper, jar, and ingestible dietary supplement. Consumers who benefit from the use of CBG isolate products will be able to depend on consistent experiences with each use.
This issue of reduced and delayed bioavailability has led to the appearance of Nanoemulsion in the cannabinoid space. Nanoemulsion is akin to taking an oil particle that is the size of a basketball and breaking it down into spheres the size of golf balls. A description of various nano-emulsification methods are documented in research3 published by Nano Bella Chief Chemist Dr. Manish Kumar Ph.D., a leading researcher on the subject of hydrophobic bioactive nano-emulsification. The use of Nanoemulsion methods can significantly improve speed and absorption volume of cannabinoids.4 It is important to understand that not all Nanoemulsion methods are created equal. Unfortunately, the most common method employed in the cannabinoid space is ultrasonication. This uses sound waves to agitate the compound resulting in extreme temperatures at the core of the bioactive particle and widely varying final particulate sizes. This approach has the precision of slicing bread with a sledgehammer. This method is still effective but may result in some bioactive degradation of the cannabinoid (diagram below). Dr. Manish Kumar and other leading scientists are developing Nanoemulsion methods with a precision that more closely resembles those used in the cutting of diamonds. Over time, these methods will emerge as the gold standard in the cannabinoid marketplace.
The federally permitted level of THC in full-spectrum CBD oil is 0.3%. The most common cases of consumers failing drug tests after using a CBD product are among those who have used a full-spectrum product. Broad-spectrum and isolate-based products are often labeled as THC-free or THC undetectable. While there is no formal standard for THC-free or THC undetectable, the prevailing convention seems to be a level below 0.01% THC. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to remove every particle of THC. The challenge for individuals in the military and law enforcement is that cannabinoids are fat soluble. This means that if absorbed into a human cell, the THC can build up over time and, depending on the volume consumed, can cause a person to fail a drug test. There are six types of drug testing: oral, urine, blood, hair, perspiration, and breathalyzers. The accuracy and reliability of these tests vary. So, it is important for these individuals to understand that, however slim the possibility may be, they may fail a drug test if they use a broad-spectrum or isolate based CBD or CBG product.
There is a wholly separate trust issue that is impeding the growth of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid market. There are some larger respected companies in the CBD space that are making their way to becoming household names, and these companies make a conscious effort to bring order and standards to the cannabinoid marketplace. Unfortunately, the early CBD goldrush, combined with a relatively lax regulatory environment, led to a number of unscrupulous opportunists tainting the early market with poor-quality products. These products often contained low doses of CBD or, in some cases, no CBD at all. With so many white-labeled, third-party manufactured products in the marketplace, some of these questionable business practices will persist for the foreseeable future.
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